In general, management is an activity to regulate other people to achieve a goal or complete work. This is based on the following expert opinions:
- Management is a process carried out by one person / more to coordinate the activities of others in order to achieve results (goals) that cannot be achieved by just one person. (Evancevich)
- Management is a process where the implementation of a goal is organized and supervised (Encyclopaedia of social sciences)
- Management makes goals achieved through the activities of others and their functions can be solved at least 2 main responsibilities (planning and supervision)
- Management is the achievement of predetermined goals using other people (Robert D. Terry).
In the field of public health - Health management is an activity or an art to regulate health workers and non-health workers to improve public health through health programs. "In other words public health management is the application of general management in the public health service system so that management's target is the public health service system. (Notoatmodjo, 2003)
While management functions, according to some experts contain various components as follows:
- According to L. Gullick management contains several elements including Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, Coordinating, Reporting, Budgetting
- According to George Terry - Planning, Organizing, Actuating, Controlling
- Menurut Koonzt O’ Donnel – Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, Controlling
- According to H. Fayol - Planning, Organizing, Commanding, Coordinating, Controlling
The various components of the management function above can be explained as follows:
- Planning (planning) is a process that starts with formulating the organization's goals until it sets out alternative activities for its achievement.
- Organizing (organizing) is a series of management activities to collect all the resources (potential) owned by the organization and use them efficiently to achieve organizational goals.
- Acting (directing, commanding, motivating, staffing, coordinating) or the function of mobilizing implementation is a process of guidance to staff so that they are able to work optimally in carrying out their main tasks in accordance with their existing skills, and support available resources.
- Controlling (monitoring) or supervision and control (wasdal) is a process to continuously observe the implementation of activities in accordance with work plans that have been prepared and make corrections if there are deviations.
Application of Health Management
Many healthy understandings are conveyed by experts, WHO, and according to the Law, among others, it is stated that health is an optimal condition, both physical, mental and social, and not only limited to conditions or diseases.
In accordance with the goals of the health system, health administration (management) cannot be equated with business administration (business administration) which is more oriented towards efforts to seek financial profit (profit oriented). Health administration is more precisely classified into public / public administration because health organizations are more concerned with achieving public welfare. Health management must be developed in each health organization in Indonesia.